Get Adobe Flash player



Colaboração académica com



===================

Navegador recomendado


Para uma melhor experiência de navegação instale também o AdBlock Plus

===================



Este site tem o patrocínio



Images: www.freeimages.co.uk

Início - Strahlentherapie und Onkologie

- Strahlentherapie und Onkologie

Latest Results for Strahlentherapie und Onkologie
The latest content available from Springer

  • Influence of XRCC4 expression by breast cancer cells on ipsilateral recurrence after breast-conserving therapy

    Abstract

    Background

    We examined the expression of nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) proteins by breast cancer cells in patients with or without ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving therapy. We also investigated whether there was a difference of NHEJ-related protein expression by tumor cells between two types of IBTR, i.e., true recurrence (TR) with regrowth from the tumor bed or development of a new primary tumor (NP).

    Patients and methods

    The original cohort comprised 560 breast cancer patients who received breast-conserving therapy between February 1995 and March 2006, including 520 patients without IBTR and 40 patients with IBTR. Propensity score matching was employed to select 40 trios (120 patients) consisting of 1 patient with IBTR and 2 patients without IBTR. Immunohistochemical examination of proteins related to NHEJ was performed in surgical specimens.

    Results

    The 40 patients with IBTR included 22 patients who developed TR and 18 who had NP. The 15-year overall survival rate was 85.9% for patients with NP and 95.5% for those with TR, while it was 96.5% for patients without IBTR. Patients with high XRCC4 expression in tumor cells had significantly higher IBTR rates than those with low XRCC4 expression (P < 0.001). The frequency of TR was significantly higher in patients with high expression of XRCC4 than in those with low XRCC4 expression (p < 0.001). XRCC4 expression by tumor cells was not significantly related to development of NP.

    Conclusion

    IBTR due to TR may be related to low radiosensitivity of tumor cells, possibly related to high XRCC4 expression.



  • Palliative care in everyday practice of radiation oncologists

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Little is known about the attitudes of radiation oncologists towards palliative care, about their competences in this field, and about the collaboration with palliative care specialists. Our aim was to close this gap and understand more about the importance of an additional qualification in palliative care.

    Methods

    Medical members of the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) were electronically surveyed during November–December 2016.

    Results

    The survey was emailed successfully to 1110 addressees, whereas a total of 205 questionnaires were eligible for analysis (response rate 18.4%). 55 (26.8%) of the respondents had an additional qualification in palliative care. Physicians who had an additional qualification in palliative care (PC qualification) reported palliative care needs for their patients more frequently than the other respondents (89.0 vs. 82.7%, p = 0.008). Furthermore, they were most likely to report a high confidence in palliative care competences, such as “communication skills & support for relatives” (83.6 vs. 59.3%, p = 0.013), “symptom control,” and “pain management” (94.5 vs. 67.7%, p < 0.001 and 90.9 vs. 73.3%, p = 0.008, respectively). Respondents with a PC qualification more often involved palliative care specialists than the other respondents (63.3 vs. 39.3%, p = 0.007). Perceived main barriers regarding palliative care in radiation oncology included time aspects (9.2%), stigmata (8.5%), and the lack of interdisciplinary collaboration (8.5%).

    Conclusions

    This analysis demonstrated that aspects of palliative care strongly impact on daily practice in radiation oncology. Additional qualifications and comprehensive training in palliative medicine may contribute to improved patient care in radiation oncology.



  • Durvalumab nach einer Radiochemotherapie ist beim NSCLC im Stadium III derzeit die vielversprechendste Therapie
  • Long-term cosmetic outcome after preoperative radio-/chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer patients

    Abstract

    Background

    Preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy (PRT/PCRT) represent an increasingly used clinical strategy in different tumor sites. We have previously reported on a PRT/PRCT protocol in patients with locally advanced non-inflammatory breast cancer (LABC) with promising clinical results. However, concerns regarding a possible unfavorable influence on cosmesis still exist. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine long-term cosmetic outcome in our series of LABC patients treated with PRT/PCRT followed by breast-conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy (ME).

    Patients and methods

    Of the 315 patients treated with PRT/PCRT in the years 1991 to 1999, 203 were still alive at long-term follow-up of mean 17.7 years (range 14–21). Thirty-seven patients were lost to follow-up and 58 patients refused to be contacted, which resulted in 107 patients (64 patients after BCS and 43 after mastectomy) being available and willing to undergo further cosmetic assessment. One patient had a complete response after PRT/PCRT and refused surgery. PRT/PCRT consisted of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with 50 Gy (5 × 2 Gy/week) to the breast and the supra-/infraclavicular lymph nodes combined with a consecutive electron boost or (in case of BCS) a 10-Gy interstitial brachytherapy boost with Ir-192 prior to EBRT. Overall, chemotherapy was administered either prior to RT or concomitantly in the majority of patients. BCS and mastectomy were performed with and without reconstruction. The cosmetic outcome was assessed by patient questionnaire, panel evaluation, and breast retraction assessment (BRA) score.

    Results

    Eighty percent of all BCS patients rated their overall cosmetic result as “excellent” or “good” as compared to 55.8% after mastectomy. Patient and panel ratings on cosmetic outcomes were similar between the two groups. No grade III or IV fibrosis were detected in any of the groups. The median BRA score after breast conserving surgery was 2.9.

    Conclusion

    PRT/PCRT is associated with low grades of fibrosis and a good to excellent long-term cosmetic outcome.



  • Radiochirurgie und operative neurovaskuläre Dekompression annähernd gleichwertig bei der Behandlung von Trigeminusneuralgien
  • Consolidative mediastinal irradiation of malignant lymphoma using active scanning proton beams: clinical outcome and dosimetric comparison

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Current research approaches in lymphoma focus on reduction of therapy-associated long-term side effects. Especially in mediastinal lymphoma, proton beam radiotherapy (PT) may be a promising approach for reducing the dose to organs at risk (OAR).

    Patients

    In total, 20 patients were irradiated with active scanning PT at Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) between September 2014 and February 2017. For comparative analysis, additional photon irradiation plans with helical intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were calculated and quantitative and qualitative dose evaluations were made for both treatment modalities. Toxicity and survival outcomes were evaluated.

    Results

    Clinical target volume coverage was comparable in both treatment modalities and did not significantly differ between IMRT and PT. Nevertheless, PT showed superiority regarding the homogeneity index (HIPT = 1.041 vs. HIIMRT = 1.075, p < 0.001). For all OAR, PT showed significantly higher dose reductions compared with IMRT. In particular, the dose to the heart was reduced in PT (absolute dose reduction of Dmean of 3.3 Gy [all patients] and 4.2 Gy [patients with pericardial involvement]). Likewise, the subgroup analysis of female patients, who were expected to receive higher doses to the breast, showed a higher dose reduction in Dmean of 1.2 Gy (right side) and 2.2 Gy (left side). After a median follow-up of 32 months (range 21–48 months), local and distant progression free survival (LPFS and DPFS) were 95.5% and 95.0%, respectively. Radiotherapy was tolerated well with only mild (grade 1–2) radiation-induced acute and chronic side effects.

    Conclusion

    A significant reduction in the dose to the surrounding OAR was achieved with PT compared with photon irradiation, without compromising target volume coverage. Dosimetric advantages may have the potential to translate into a reduction of long-term radiation-induced toxicity in young patients with malignant lymphoma of the mediastinum.



  • Tomotherapy in malignant mesothelioma: a planning study to establish dose constraints

    Abstract

    Purpose

    A planning study was performed for helical tomotherapy treatment. We evaluated the maximum achievable protection of organs at risk (OARs) in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma after pleurectomy with simultaneous optimal target coverage.

    Materials and methods

    The datasets of 13 patients were included. The applied dose to the planning target volume (PTV) was 50.4 Gy with single doses of 1.8 Gy per fraction. Presuming optimal target coverage, we evaluated the applied dose to the OARs with special regard to the contralateral lung.

    Results

    For left-(lsRT)/right(rsRT)-sided radiotherapy, target coverage for the PTV showed a D98 (mean) of 49.37/49.71 Gy (98.0%/98.6%) and a D2 (mean) of 54.19/54.61 Gy (107.5%/108.3%). The beam-on time was kept below 15 min. The achieved mean dose (D50) to the contralateral lung was kept below 4 Gy for lsRT and rsRT. With regard to the other organs at risk the applied doses were as follows: mean dose (lsRT): ipsilateral kidney (Dmean) 13.03 (5.32–22.18) Gy, contralateral kidney (Dmean) <2.0 Gy, heart (Dmean) 22.23 (13.57–27.72) Gy, spinal cord D1 <Gy; mean dose (rsRT): ipsilateral kidney (Dmean) 10.22 (6.30–18.04) Gy, contralateral kidney (Dmean) <2.1 Gy, heart (Dmean) 8.02 (6.0–10.38) Gy, spinal cord D1 <35.5 Gy.

    Conclusion

    With helical tomotherapy, postoperative treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma after pleurectomy achieves good target coverage combined with simultaneous dose sparing to the (especially contralateral) OARs.



  • Risk of cardiotoxicity induced by adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy in young and old Asian women with breast cancer

    Abstract

    Purpose

    The risk of cardiotoxicity induced by adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) is yet to be investigated in a large-scale randomized controlled trial with an adequate sample size of young and old women with breast cancer.

    Patients and methods

    To compare the occurrence of major heart events (heart failure and coronary artery disease) in patients with breast cancer, 3489 women who underwent surgical resection of the breast tumor were retrospectively selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The patients were categorized into the following groups based on their treatment modalities: group 1 (n = 1113), no treatment; group 2 (n = 646), adjuvant RT alone; group 3 (n = 705), adjuvant anthracycline-based CT alone; and group 4 (n = 1025), combined adjuvant RT and anthracycline-based CT.

    Results

    The mean patient age was 50.35 years. Subsequent coronary artery disease and heart failure were identified in 244 (7.0%) and 206 (5.9%) patients, respectively. All three adjuvant therapies were significant independent prognostic factors of major heart events (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.47 [1.24–1.73]; 1.48 [1.25–1.75], and 1.92 [1.65–2.23] in groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively). In patients aged ≥50 years with breast cancer who underwent surgery, the log-rank p values of groups 2 and 3 after adjustment were 0.537 and 0.001, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Adjuvant RT can increase cardiotoxicity in patients with breast cancer, particularly when used in combination with anthracycline-based CT. Therefore, it should be offered with optimal heart-sparing techniques, particularly in younger patients with good prognosis and long life expectancy.



  • Chemoradiotherapy with and without deep regional hyperthermia for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus

    Abstract

    Purpose

    To compare results after chemoradiotherapy with and without deep regional hyperthermia in patients with anal cancer.

    Methods

    Between 2000 and 2015, a total of 112 consecutive patients with UICC stage I–IV anal cancer received chemoradiotherapy with 5‑fluororuracil and mitomycin C (CRT). In case of insufficient tumor response 4–6 weeks after chemoradiotherapy, patients received an interstitial pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy boost. Additionally, 50/112 patients received hyperthermia treatments (HCRT).

    Results

    Median follow-up was 41 (2–165) months. After 5 years follow-up, overall (95.8 vs. 74.5%, P = 0.045), disease-free (89.1 vs. 70.4%, P = 0.027), local recurrence-free (97.7 vs. 78.7%, P = 0.006), and colostomy-free survival rates (87.7 vs. 69.0%, P = 0.016) were better for the HCRT group. Disease-specific, regional failure-free, and distant metastasis-free survival rates showed no significant differences. The adjusted hazard ratios for death were 0.25 (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.92; P = 0.036) and for local recurrence 0.14 (95% CI, 0.02 to 1.09; P = 0.06), respectively. Grades 3–4 early toxicities were comparable with the exception of hematotoxicity, which was higher in the HCRT group (66 vs. 43%, P = 0.032). Incidences of late side effects were similar with the exception of a higher telangiectasia rate in the HCRT group (38.0 vs. 16.1%, P = 0.009).

    Conclusion

    Additional regional hyperthermia improved overall survival, local control, and colostomy rates. Its potential beneficial role has to be confirmed in a prospective randomized setting. Therefore, the HyCAN trial has already been established by our group and is currently recruiting patients (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02369939).



  • Vitamin D und Omega-3-Fettsäuren senken das Risiko für Krebs und kardiovaskuläre Ereignisse nicht
  • Single-center long-term results from the randomized phase-3 TARGIT-A trial comparing intraoperative and whole-breast radiation therapy for early breast cancer

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Partial breast irradiation using intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) after breast-conserving surgery could be sufficient for a selected group of breast cancer patients. We report the results of a cohort of patients from a single center treated as part of the randomized phase-3 TARGIT-A trial.

    Methods

    Patients (≥50 years) with cT1 cN0 cM0 and invasive ductal histology on biopsy were randomized between IORT with 20 Gy (arm-A) or postoperative whole-breast RT (WBRT) up to 56 Gy in 2 Gy fractions (arm-B). Postoperatively, patients in arm-A with multifocality, lymphovascular invasion, nodal invasion, extensive intraductal component, invasive lobular carcinoma, or resection margins <1 cm received additional postoperative WBRT.

    Results

    Between 2002 and 2012, 184 patients were randomized, of whom 90 in arm-A and 90 in arm-B were evaluated. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. The 5‑year overall survival was 94.4% in arm-A and 93.3% in arm-B (p = 0.73). Two local recurrences were observed: one at 70.3 months in an arm-A patient who received IORT + WBRT and another at 4.5 months in an arm-B patient who refused all forms of adjuvant treatment, thus resulting in a 5-year local recurrence of 0% in arm-A and 1.1% in arm-B. The 5‑year in-breast recurrence (outside of the index quadrant) was 0% in arm-A and 1.2% in arm-B. Salvage mastectomy was performed successfully in all patients with relapse.

    Conclusion

    Long-term follow-up of this single-center cohort consolidates the earlier reports of low local recurrence rates after single-dose IORT. Our results are in line with non-inferiority of risk-adapted IORT for selected patients with early breast cancer.



  • Pembrolizumab ist effektiver und besser verträglich als Methotrexat, Docetaxel oder Cetuximab bei rezidivierten oder metastasierten HNO-Karzinomen (KEYNOTE-040)
  • Lomustin und Temozolomid in Kombination mit Bestrahlung
  • Stability and survival analysis of elderly patients with osteolytic spinal bone metastases after palliative radiotherapy

    Abstract

    Purpose

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the stability and fracture rates of osteolytic spinal bone metastases (SBM) in elderly patients following palliative radiotherapy (RT) and to derive prognostic factors for stability and survival.

    Methods

    A total of 322 patients aged at least 70 years received palliative RT at two major German academic medical centers or at the German Cancer Research Center. Stability assessment was based on the validated Taneichi score prior to RT and at 3 and 6 months after RT. The survival time following RT was assessed, and prognostic factors for stability and survival were analyzed.

    Results

    Prior to RT, 183 patients (57%) exhibited unstable SBM and 68 patients (21%) pathological fractures. At 3 and 6 months after RT, significant recalcification and stabilization were evident in 19% (23/118) and 40% (31/78) of surviving patients, respectively. Only 17 patients (5%) experienced new pathological fractures following RT. Tumor histology was found to significantly influence stabilization rates with only breast cancer patients exhibiting increased stabilization compared to patients with other histologies. The median survival time and 6‑month survival rates following RT were 5.4 months (95% confidence interval 4.4–7.2 months) and 48%, respectively. The patients’ performance status was found to be the strongest predictor for survival after RT in this patient cohort; further factors demonstrating a significant association with survival were the application of systemic treatment, the number of SBM and the primary tumor histology. To analyze the influence of age on survival after RT, study patients were stratified into 3 age groups (i.e., 70–74 years, 75–79 years, and ≥80 years). The subgroup of patients aged at least 80 years showed a strong trend towards a worse survival time following RT compared to younger patients (i.e., 6‑month survival rate 39% vs. 51%; p = 0.06, log-rank test).

    Conclusions

    Prognostic factors influencing overall survival such as performance status and histology should guide the choice for palliative RT for SBM. Strongly hypofractionated RT regimes may be advisable for most elderly patients considering the overall poor prognosis in order to reduce hospitalization times.



  • Predicting survival and local control after radiochemotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer by means of computed tomography based radiomics

    Abstract

    Purpose

    To appraise the ability of a radiomics signature to predict clinical outcome after definitive radiochemotherapy (RCT) of stage III–IV head and neck cancer.

    Methods

    A cohort of 110 patients was included in a retrospective analysis. Radiomics texture features were extracted from the gross tumor volumes contoured on planning computed tomography (CT) images. The cohort of patients was randomly divided into a training (70 patients) and a validation (40 patients) cohorts. Textural features were correlated to survival and control data to build predictive models. All the significant predictors of the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate model. The quality of the models was appraised by means of the concordance index (CI).

    Results

    A signature with 3 features was identified as predictive of overall survival (OS) with CI = 0.88 and 0.90 for the training and validation cohorts, respectively. A signature with 2 features was identified for progression-free survival (PFS; CI = 0.72 and 0.80); 2 features also characterized the signature for local control (LC; CI = 0.72 and 0.82). In all cases, the stratification in high- and low-risk groups for the training and validation cohorts led to significant differences in the actuarial curves. In the validation cohort the mean OS times (in months) were 78.9 ± 2.1 vs 67.4 ± 6.0 in the low- and high-risk groups, respectively, the PFS was 73.1 ± 3.7 and 50.7 ± 7.2, while the LC was 78.7 ± 2.1 and 63.9 ± 6.5.

    Conclusion

    CT-based radiomic signatures that correlate with survival and control after RCT were identified and allow low- and high-risk groups of patients to be identified.



  • PET/MRI-guided GTV delineation during radiotherapy planning in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue

    Abstract

    Purpose

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of 18-fluorine-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hybrid in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation during radiotherapy planning in patients with carcinoma of the tongue.

    Methods

    Ten patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue underwent computed tomography (CT) and PET/MRI examination. The GTV for primary tumor and lymph nodes (nGTV) were defined on CT (GTV-CT) and compared to GTVs obtained from PET (GTV-PET) and MRI (GTV-MRI) images. Two methods of GTV determination were used: visual interpretation of CT, PET (GTV-PETvis) and MRI images and quantitative automatic method (Syngovia, Siemens) based on a chosen threshold value (20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of standardized uptake values (SUVmax) from PET examination (GTV-PET20%, GTV-PET30%, etc.). Statistical analysis of differences in GTV values obtained from CT, PET and MRI studies was performed. GTV-CT was used as a reference.

    Results

    In all, 80% of GTV-MRI and 40% of GTV-PETvis were larger than GTV-CT. Respectively, 20% of GTV-MRI and 60% of GTV-PETvis were smaller than GTV-CT. Taking into account all threshold measurements, 70% of volumes were smaller than GTV-CT. GTV-PET30% were the most closely related volumes to GTV-CT from all threshold methods in 50% of patients. GTV-PETvis generated the most similar volumes in relation to GTV-CT from all PET measurements. Statistical analysis confirmed those results. Compared to nGTV-CT, 70% of nGTV-MRI and 20% of nGTV-PETvis were larger. The remaining nGTV-MRI and nGTV-PETvis measurements were smaller than nGTV-CT. Measurements of all thresholds nGTVs were smaller than nGTV-CTV in 52.5% of cases. nGTV-PET20% were the most closely related volumes to nGTV-CT in 40% of the cases. Statistical analysis showed that nGTV-PET20% (p = 0.0468), nGTV-PETvis (p = 0.0166), and nGTV-PET50% (p = 0.0166) diverge significantly from nGTV-CT results. nGTV-MRI (p = 0.1141), nGTV-PET30% (p = 0.2845), and nGTV-PET40% (p = 0.5076) were significantly related with nGTV-CT.

    Conclusion

    Combination of PET/MRI provides more information during target tumor mass delineation in radiotherapy planning of patients with SCC of the tongue than other standard imaging methods. The most frequently matching threshold value was 30% of SUVmax for primary tumor delineation and 30–40% of SUVmax for nGTV determination.



  • Prognostic factors in patients with T1 glottic cancer treated with radiotherapy

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Presentation of long-term results of radiation treatment in patients with T1 glottic cancer and evaluation of prognostic factors.

    Methods

    We performed a retrospective analysis in a group of 569 patients with T1 squamous cell glottic carcinoma treated with radiotherapy at the Center of Oncology in Cracow between 1977 and 2007. In all, 503 (88%) patients presented with T1a stage disease and 66 (12%) with T1b. Anterior commissure infiltration was present in 179 (31%) patients. Average hemoglobin level prior to therapy was 13.9 g/dl. Using the body mass index (BMI), 114 (20%) patients were underweight, and 91 (16%) were overweight. Median time between collecting tumor specimen and beginning of radiotherapy was 56 days (range 14–145 days). Treatment regimen was normofractionated with single fraction ≤2 Gy in 102 (18%) and hypofractionated in 467 (82%) patients.

    Results

    The 5‑ and 10-year overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and local control (LC) rates were 85 and 68%, 88 and 86%, 89 and 87%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that tobacco smoking, low hemoglobin level (<13 g/dl), anterior commissure infiltration, fraction dose ≤2 Gy and time from collecting specimen to beginning of therapy longer than 30 days had negative impact on LC and DSS. Patients’ age over 60 years, worse performance status and malnutrition (BMI <18.5) had negative impacts on OS.

    Conclusions

    Radiotherapy is a highly effective treatment method in patients with T1N0M0 glottic cancer. LC and DSS may be improved following hypofractionation, smoking cessation, and shortening of waiting-time until start of treatment. OS was mainly influenced by nutritional and performance status.



  • Postoperative radiotherapy in primary resectable desmoid tumors of the neck: a case–control study

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Desmoid tumors (DTs) are rare soft tissue tumors, which frequently recur after surgery. The optimal treatment approach is still controversial due to lack of randomized data. The purpose of the study was to review a relative large series of DTs of the neck with emphasis on the value of postoperative radiotherapy (RT).

    Methods

    A total of 68 patients with DTs of the neck region with or without postoperative RT between 1/2008 and 12/2017 were included. They were individually matched for factors including age, gender, tumor size and margin status with a cohort of patients who underwent operative without postoperative RT. The event-free survival (EFS) was compared in the two groups.

    Results

    For the study, 34 patients and 34 matched control subjects were identified. The two groups did not differ in terms of age (p = 0.810), gender (p = 0.328), tumor size (p = 0.803) and margin status (p = 0.799). Patients who received surgery plus RT had a significantly higher 3‑year EFS than those who received surgery alone (74.6% vs. 13.3%, P < 0.001). Factors including postoperative RT and margin status were independent factors of EFS. The values of P were <0.001 and 0.003 and the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 11.929 (4.732–30.072) and 0.299 (0.133–0.671), respectively. None of the patients treated with RT developed serious complications.

    Conclusions

    According to our results, postoperative radiotherapy is an effective treatment in desmoid tumors of the neck. Multi-institutional and prospective studies are warranted to further validate our findings.



  • Combination of brachytherapy and chemotherapy not superior to pelvic radiotherapy according to GOG-249
  • Reply to: Combination of brachytherapy and chemotherapy not superior to pelvic radiotherapy according to GOG-249
.
.
Faixa publicitária
.