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Início Publicações / RSS - Strahlentherapie und Onkologie

- Strahlentherapie und Onkologie

Latest Results for Strahlentherapie und Onkologie
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  • Acute severe lymphopenia by radiotherapy is associated with reduced overall survival in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Radiotherapy (RT) for peripheral organs can affect circulating lymphocytes and cause lymphopenia. We aimed to investigate RT-related lymphopenia in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    Methods

    Medical records of 920 patients who received RT for HCC during 2001–2016 were reviewed. Total lymphocyte count (TLC) were obtained and analyzed for clinical outcome. Acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) was defined as TLC <500/μL within the first 3 months of the start of RT.

    Results

    The median TLCs before and 1 month after the start of RT were 1120 and 310/μl, respectively, and the TLCs did not recover to their initial level after 1 year. Overall, 87.4% of patients developed ASL. The median overall survival was 13.6 and 46.7 months for patients with and without ASL, respectively (p < 0.001). ASL was independently associated with poor overall survival with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02–1.91 (p = 0.035). In the multivariate analysis, larger planning target volume (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.03; p < 0.001) and lower baseline TLC (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.82–0.91; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with an increased risk of ASL, while hypofractionation (stereotactic body RT: HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07–0.49; p = 0.001) was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ASL.

    Conclusion

    Acute severe lymphopenia after RT was associated with poor overall survival in patients with HCC. Stereotactic body RT may reduce the risk of ASL. Further attention to and research on the cause, prevention, and reversal of this phenomenon are needed.



  • Consolidative mediastinal irradiation of malignant lymphoma using active scanning proton beams: clinical outcome and dosimetric comparison

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Current research approaches in lymphoma focus on reduction of therapy-associated long-term side effects. Especially in mediastinal lymphoma, proton beam radiotherapy (PT) may be a promising approach for reducing the dose to organs at risk (OAR).

    Patients

    In total, 20 patients were irradiated with active scanning PT at Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) between September 2014 and February 2017. For comparative analysis, additional photon irradiation plans with helical intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were calculated and quantitative and qualitative dose evaluations were made for both treatment modalities. Toxicity and survival outcomes were evaluated.

    Results

    Clinical target volume coverage was comparable in both treatment modalities and did not significantly differ between IMRT and PT. Nevertheless, PT showed superiority regarding the homogeneity index (HIPT = 1.041 vs. HIIMRT = 1.075, p < 0.001). For all OAR, PT showed significantly higher dose reductions compared with IMRT. In particular, the dose to the heart was reduced in PT (absolute dose reduction of Dmean of 3.3 Gy [all patients] and 4.2 Gy [patients with pericardial involvement]). Likewise, the subgroup analysis of female patients, who were expected to receive higher doses to the breast, showed a higher dose reduction in Dmean of 1.2 Gy (right side) and 2.2 Gy (left side). After a median follow-up of 32 months (range 21–48 months), local and distant progression free survival (LPFS and DPFS) were 95.5% and 95.0%, respectively. Radiotherapy was tolerated well with only mild (grade 1–2) radiation-induced acute and chronic side effects.

    Conclusion

    A significant reduction in the dose to the surrounding OAR was achieved with PT compared with photon irradiation, without compromising target volume coverage. Dosimetric advantages may have the potential to translate into a reduction of long-term radiation-induced toxicity in young patients with malignant lymphoma of the mediastinum.



  • Retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma: low-dose neoadjuvant radiation therapy followed by surgery with or without intraoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant radiation therapy

    Abstract

    Background

    We describe the clinical history, outcome, and toxicity of five patients with high-grade retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma (RSTS) who were treated with neoadjuvant low-dose radiotherapy (RT) followed by resection with or without intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), followed by adjuvant RT. We aim to provide additional evidence for the various treatment options that exist for this rare tumor entity.

    Methods

    Most patients presented with mild abdominal symptoms. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy. Additional imaging was done by sonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and/or positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). All patients were treated with neoadjuvant RT of 19.8 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions followed by resection and postoperative RT up to 45 Gy with a median interval between resection and start of postoperative RT of 5 weeks. Two patients received additional IORT. Median follow-up was 61 months.

    Results

    One patient developed a local recurrence that was diagnosed 30 months after the start of the first therapy. He was treated with a salvage resection and had no evidence of disease at the last follow-up. Another patient developed a right-sided RSTS on the contralateral side from the primary radiation field with pelvic bone infiltration 56 months after the start of RT. He was treated again by RT and resection and was without evidence of disease at last follow-up. Radiotherapy was well tolerated without major toxicity.

    Conclusion

    The treatment of RSTS by low-dose neoadjuvant RT, resection with IORT and adjuvant RT seems to be a feasible and effective treatment approach. Further studies comparing neoadjuvant with adjuvant RT are necessary to find the best treatment option.



  • Adapted strategy to tumor response in childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the French experience

    Abstract

    Purpose

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively study survival and long-term morbidities of children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated by induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation (CRT). The total dose of radiation was adapted to the response following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Methods

    Children with non-metastatic NPC treated in France between 1999 and 2015 were retrospectively included in the study. The strategy combined neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy, followed by adapted CRT to tumor response.

    Results

    In total, 95 patients (median age 15 years [range, 7–23 years], male-to-female ratio 1.8) with undifferentiated NPC were included; 59% of patients had TNM stage IV. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was delivered to 57 patients (60%), while the other patients were treated with conformal RT (3D-RT). After a median follow-up of 4.5 years [range, 3.6–5.5 years], 13 relapses and seven deaths had occurred. The 3‑year overall and relapse-free survival (RFS) were 94% [95% CI, 85–97%] and 86% [77–92%], respectively. The locoregional failure rate was 6% [95% CI, 2–14]. Long-term treatment-related sequelae of grade 2+ were reported by 37 (50%) patients; odynophagia was significantly reduced treated by IMRT vs. conventional 3D-RT (7% vs. 55%, p = 0.015). Using a reduction dose of 59.4 Gy, 54 Gy, and 45 Gy, respectively, to the primary, involved, and uninvolved neck nodes, after a favorable tumor response, was not associated with an increased locoregional failure rate.

    Conclusions

    The survival rates for NPC have been considerably improved by means of multimodal therapy, but long-term locoregional morbidity remains common. Use of IMRT may induce less residual odynophagia. Radiation dose reduction adapted to chemotherapy response does not have a negative impact on outcome. These findings support the use of an RT protocol adapted to the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for a long-lasting improvement in the patient’s quality of life.



  • Reply to: Combination of brachytherapy and chemotherapy not superior to pelvic radiotherapy according to GOG-249
  • Durvalumab nach einer Radiochemotherapie ist beim NSCLC im Stadium III derzeit die vielversprechendste Therapie
  • Radiochirurgie und operative neurovaskuläre Dekompression annähernd gleichwertig bei der Behandlung von Trigeminusneuralgien
  • Radiotherapy of epicondylitis humeri

    Abstract

    Background

    Epicondylitis humeri is a common disease with a prevalence of 1.7%. One of the treatment options is radiotherapy. Most published cases were treated with the orthovoltage technique or with a telecobalt device. Many radiotherapy institutions are nowadays using linear accelerators for treatment of epicondylitis humeri. There is a discussion whether the treatment results with linear accelerators are comparable to the orthovoltage technique. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of radiotherapy with a linear accelerator for epicondylitis humeri.

    Material and methods

    The analysis was performed on patients of 2 German radiotherapy institutions and included 138 irradiated elbows. Pain was documented with the numeric rating scale (NRS). Evaluation of the NRS was done before and directly after each radiation therapy course as well as for the follow-up of 24 months. The median age of the patients was 49 years with 48.4% male and 51.6% female. In all, 81.0% were suffering from from epicondylitis humeri radialis while 16.7% were treated because of epicondylitis humeri ulnaris. In 65.4% the dominant arm was treated.

    Results

    A significant response to radiotherapy could be found. For the whole sample the median pain was 7 on the NRS before radiotherapy, 4 after 6 weeks and 0 after 12 and 24 months. The percentage of patients with 0 or 1 on the NRS was 64.6% 12 months after radiotherapy. All subgroups, notably those with epicondylitis humeri radialis and epicondylitis humeri ulnaris had a significant reduction of pain.

    Conclusion

    Radiotherapy of epicondylitis humeri with a linear accelerator is an effective treatment without showing side effects. All analyzed subgroups showed a good response to radiotherapy for at least 24 months.



  • Impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy on the outcomes of breast cancer patients with T1–2 N1 disease

    Abstract

    Purpose

    To assess the impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) on overall survival and relapse-free survival among breast cancer patients with T1–T2 N1 disease who received standard adjuvant systemic therapy.

    Methods

    This is an individual patient data pooled analysis of 1053 breast cancer patients referred for adjuvant therapy in three clinical trials (BIG 02/98, BCIRG001, and BCIRG005). Overall survival was assessed according to whether or not patients received adjuvant radiotherapy through Kaplan–Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses of predictors of overall and relapse-free survival were conducted through Cox regression analysis.

    Results

    Locoregional relapse rates (after a median follow up of 116 months) were 5.6% among patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy vs. 6.6% among patients who did not receive adjuvant radiotherapy. Actuarial 5‑ and 10-year locoregional relapse-free survival rates were 94 and 93%, respectively, among patients who did not receive adjuvant radiotherapy versus 95 and 92% among patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy. The following factors were associated with worse overall survival in multivariate Cox regression analysis: age < 40 years (P < 0.0001), T2 stage (P = 0.004), higher lymph node ratio (P < 0.0001), and negative hormone receptor status (P < 0.0001). Likewise, the following factors were predictive of shorter locoregional relapse-free survival: age ≤ 40 (P < 0.0001), no PMRT (P = 0.034), fluorouracil/adriamycin/cyclophosphamide (FAC) chemotherapy (P = 0.001), and higher T stage (P = 0.002).

    Conclusion

    The current analysis does not show a beneficial impact of PMRT on overall or relapse-free survival among patients with T1–T2 N1 disease who received standard adjuvant systemic therapy. There is, however, evidence of improvement in locoregional relapse-free survival with PMRT. These findings need to be prospectively validated.



  • Reply to the letter to the editor “Comment to ‘Impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy on the outcomes of breast cancer patients with T1-2 N1 disease; an individual patient data analysis of three clinical trials’”
  • Comparison of treatment plans for a high-field MRI-linac and a conventional linac for esophageal cancer

    Abstract

    Purpose

    To compare radiotherapy treatments plans in esophageal cancer calculated for a high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac with plans for a conventional linac.

    Materials and methods

    Ten patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were re-planned retrospectively using the research version of Monaco (V 5.19.03, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden). Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans with a nine-field step-and-shoot technique and two-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were created for the Elekta MRI-linac and a conventional linac, respectively. The prescribed dose was 60 Gy to the primary tumor (PTV60) and 50 Gy to elective volumes (PTV50). Plans were optimized for optimal coverage of the 60 Gy volume and compared using dose–volume histogram parameters.

    Results

    All calculated treatment plans met predefined criteria for target volume coverage and organs at risk dose both for MRI-linac and conventional linac. Plans for the MRI-linac had a lower number of segments and monitor units. No significant differences between both plans were seen in terms of V20Gy of the lungs and V40Gy of the heart with slightly higher mean doses to the heart (14.0 Gy vs. 12.5 Gy) and lungs (12.8 Gy vs. 12.2 Gy).

    Conclusion

    Applying conventional target volume and margin concepts as well as dose-fractionation prescription reveals clinically acceptable dose distributions using hybrid MRI-linac in its current configuration compared to standard IMRT/VMAT. This represents an important prerequisite for future studies to investigate the clinical benefit of MRI-guided radiotherapy exploiting the conceptional advantages such as reduced margins, plan adaptation and biological individualization and hypofractionation.



  • Low-dose radiotherapy: Mayday, mayday. We’ve been hit!
  • Lokale Radiotherapie für Patienten mit einem neu diagnostizierten, metastasierten Prostatakarzinom
  • A comparison of a brachytherapy and an external beam radiotherapy boost in breast-conserving therapy for breast cancer: local and any recurrences

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Adding a tumour bed boost to whole-breast irradiation in breast-conserving therapy reduces local recurrence rates. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the boost technique influences the magnitude of the effect.

    Methods

    Patients treated with breast-conserving therapy for invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2007 were included in the analysis. Three groups were considered according to the applied boost technique: electrons, brachytherapy or photons. The endpoints were local recurrence and any recurrence. Cox regression models were used and correction for the confounders in the association between boost technique and outcome was performed using multivariable models.

    Results

    1879 tumours were included in the analysis. 1448 tumours (77.1%) were treated with an electron boost, 334 (17.8%) with a brachytherapy boost and 97 (5.2%) with a photon boost. Median follow-up was 13.1 years. The 10-year local recurrence rate was 2.2%. In multivariable analysis with correction for age, pathological Tumour or Node stage (pT, pN), chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, there was no significant difference between the three groups for the local recurrence risk (p = 0.89). 10-year any recurrence rate was 10.8%. In multivariable analysis with correction for age, pT, pN, resection margins, radiotherapy, year of diagnosis, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, there was no significant difference between the brachytherapy group and the electron group or the photon group (p = 0.11 and p = 0.28, respectively). The photon group had more recurrences compared to the electron group (Hazard Ratio 1.81, 95% Confidence Interval 1.12; 2.92, p = 0.02).

    Conclusions

    The local recurrence risk reduction of the tumour bed boost in breast-conserving therapy is not influenced by the applied boost technique.



  • Management immunologischer Nebenwirkungen von Patienten, die mit Immun-Checkpoint-Inhibitoren behandelt werden: ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline Summary
  • Radiochemotherapy combined with NK cell transfer followed by second-line PD-1 inhibition in a patient with NSCLC stage IIIb inducing long-term tumor control: a case study

    Abstract

    Background

    Membrane heat shock protein 70 (mHsp70) is indicative of high-risk tumors and serves as a tumor-specific target for natural killer (NK) cells stimulated with Hsp70 peptide (TKD) and Interleukin(IL)-2. Radiochemotherapy (RCT), mHsp70-targeting NK cells, and programmed death(PD)-1 inhibition were combined to improve the efficacy of tumor-specific immune cells in a non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patient.

    Patient

    Following simultaneous RCT (64.8 Gy), a patient with inoperable NSCLC (cT4, cN3, cM0, stage IIIb) was treated with 4 cycles of autologous ex vivo TKD/IL-2-activated NK cells and the PD-1 antibody nivolumab as a second-line therapy. Blood samples were taken for immunophenotyping during the course of therapy.

    Results

    Adoptive transfer of ex vivo TKD/IL-2-activated NK cells after RCT combined with PD-1 blockade is well tolerated and results in superior overall survival (OS). No viable tumor cells but a massive immune cell infiltration in fibrotic tissue was detected after therapy. Neither tumor progression nor distant metastases were detectable by CT scanning 33 months after diagnosis. Therapy response was associated with significantly increased CD3/NKG2D+/CD94+ NK cell counts, elevated CD8+ to CD4+ T cell and CD3/CD56bright to CD3/CD56dim NK cell ratios, and significantly reduced regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the peripheral blood.

    Conclusion

    A combined therapy consisting of RCT, mHsp70-targeting NK cells, and PD-1 antibody inhibition is well tolerated, induces anti-tumor immunity, and results in long-term tumor control in one patient with advanced NSCLC. Further, randomized studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of this combination therapy.



  • Comment to Impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy on the outcomes of breast cancer patients with T1-2 N1 disease; an individual patient data analysis of three clinical trials
  • Pattern of care of adjuvant radiotherapy in male breast cancer patients in clinical practice: an observational study

    Abstract

    Background and purpose

    Due to the rarity of male breast cancer (male BC), no consensus has been reached regarding the most appropriate curative treatment strategy. The objective of the present observational study was to identify patient and tumor characteristics and assess the role of radiotherapy (RT) in clinical practice.

    Methods

    Between 1998 and 2014, data of male BC patients treated at two breast centers were consecutively collected and retrospectively analyzed. Patients were stratified based on the addition of adjuvant RT. Data on overall survival (OS) and local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) were estimated with the Kaplan–Meier method and compared by the log-rank test.

    Results

    A consecutive cohort of 58 male BC patients was evaluated. Median follow-up was 56 months. Twenty-one patients (36.2%) received adjuvant RT. Overall, patients undergoing postoperative RT were characterized by more high-risk features. Patients receiving postoperative RT had significantly more frequently a high UICC stage (50 vs. 9.7% UICC III, p = 0.018) and positive lymph nodes as compared to patients undergoing surgery alone (65 vs. 34.4% pN+, p = 0.046). Accordingly, there was a higher proportion of patients receiving axillary lymph node dissection in the RT group (71.4 vs. 35.6%). Mastectomy was performed in 31/37 (86.1%) in the surgery group as compared to 14/21 (66.7%) in patients receiving postoperative RT. In addition, RT patients were more likely to receive endocrine therapy (78.9 vs. 39.3%, p = 0.016). Outcome was not significantly different between the groups (5-year LRFS: 89.8 vs. 80.0%, p = 0.471 and 5‑year OS 88.4 vs. 88.9%, p = 0.819).

    Conclusion

    The present observational study evaluated the pattern of care in male BC patients treated in clinical practice. Due to its rarity, randomized clinical trials are unlikely and male BC remains an entity with a poor evidence base. Nevertheless, RT remains a crucial component of the multidisciplinary treatment strategy in male BC.



  • Patienten mit metastatischer Rückenmarkskompression profitieren von rascher multidisziplinärer Diagnostik und Behandlung
  • Chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer: are we as good as we think?

    Abstract

    Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC). Data regarding treatment outcome according to TNM classification is scarce. Here, we review data of randomized trials and retrospective cohorts suggesting a poor 3‑year disease-free survival (DFS; or progression-free survival, PFS) of approximately 60%, or even lower, in patients with locally advanced T3–4 and/or N+ disease, while patients with T1–2N0 ASCC have 3‑year DFS/PFS rates exceeding 80%. These results are in line with our data in a cohort of 210 patients with ASCC treated with definitive 5‑fluorouracil/mitomycin C‑based CRT to a total dose of 50.4 Gy plus a boost of 3.6–10.8 Gy. The implications of these findings and the current trials testing radiotherapy dose escalation/de-escalation strategies are reported. Finally, we will discuss the strong rationale for testing immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) with CRT in clinical trials to improve results, especially in patients with advanced ASCC.



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