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Início Publicações / RSS - Strahlentherapie und Onkologie

- Strahlentherapie und Onkologie

Latest Results for Strahlentherapie und Onkologie
The latest content available from Springer

  • Postoperative radiotherapy in primary resectable desmoid tumors of the neck: a case–control study

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Desmoid tumors (DTs) are rare soft tissue tumors, which frequently recur after surgery. The optimal treatment approach is still controversial due to lack of randomized data. The purpose of the study was to review a relative large series of DTs of the neck with emphasis on the value of postoperative radiotherapy (RT).

    Methods

    A total of 68 patients with DTs of the neck region with or without postoperative RT between 1/2008 and 12/2017 were included. They were individually matched for factors including age, gender, tumor size and margin status with a cohort of patients who underwent operative without postoperative RT. The event-free survival (EFS) was compared in the two groups.

    Results

    For the study, 34 patients and 34 matched control subjects were identified. The two groups did not differ in terms of age (p = 0.810), gender (p = 0.328), tumor size (p = 0.803) and margin status (p = 0.799). Patients who received surgery plus RT had a significantly higher 3‑year EFS than those who received surgery alone (74.6% vs. 13.3%, P < 0.001). Factors including postoperative RT and margin status were independent factors of EFS. The values of P were <0.001 and 0.003 and the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 11.929 (4.732–30.072) and 0.299 (0.133–0.671), respectively. None of the patients treated with RT developed serious complications.

    Conclusions

    According to our results, postoperative radiotherapy is an effective treatment in desmoid tumors of the neck. Multi-institutional and prospective studies are warranted to further validate our findings.



  • 22nd Annual SASRO Meeting
  • Abstracts DEGRO 2019
  • Adapted strategy to tumor response in childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the French experience

    Abstract

    Purpose

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively study survival and long-term morbidities of children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated by induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation (CRT). The total dose of radiation was adapted to the response following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Methods

    Children with non-metastatic NPC treated in France between 1999 and 2015 were retrospectively included in the study. The strategy combined neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy, followed by adapted CRT to tumor response.

    Results

    In total, 95 patients (median age 15 years [range, 7–23 years], male-to-female ratio 1.8) with undifferentiated NPC were included; 59% of patients had TNM stage IV. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was delivered to 57 patients (60%), while the other patients were treated with conformal RT (3D-RT). After a median follow-up of 4.5 years [range, 3.6–5.5 years], 13 relapses and seven deaths had occurred. The 3‑year overall and relapse-free survival (RFS) were 94% [95% CI, 85–97%] and 86% [77–92%], respectively. The locoregional failure rate was 6% [95% CI, 2–14]. Long-term treatment-related sequelae of grade 2+ were reported by 37 (50%) patients; odynophagia was significantly reduced treated by IMRT vs. conventional 3D-RT (7% vs. 55%, p = 0.015). Using a reduction dose of 59.4 Gy, 54 Gy, and 45 Gy, respectively, to the primary, involved, and uninvolved neck nodes, after a favorable tumor response, was not associated with an increased locoregional failure rate.

    Conclusions

    The survival rates for NPC have been considerably improved by means of multimodal therapy, but long-term locoregional morbidity remains common. Use of IMRT may induce less residual odynophagia. Radiation dose reduction adapted to chemotherapy response does not have a negative impact on outcome. These findings support the use of an RT protocol adapted to the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for a long-lasting improvement in the patient’s quality of life.



  • Combination of brachytherapy and chemotherapy not superior to pelvic radiotherapy according to GOG-249
  • Reply to: Combination of brachytherapy and chemotherapy not superior to pelvic radiotherapy according to GOG-249
  • Impact of bladder volume on acute genitourinary toxicity in intensity modulated radiotherapy for localized and locally advanced prostate cancer

    Abstract

    Background and purpose

    To evaluate the effect of changes in bladder volume during high-dose intensity-modulated-radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer on acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and prospectively evaluate a simple biofeedback technique for reproducible bladder filling with the aim of reducing acute GU toxicity.

    Methods

    One hundred ninety-three patients were trained via a biofeedback mechanism to maintain a partially filled bladder with a reproducible volume of 200–300 cc at planning CT and subsequently at each fraction of radiotherapy. We prospectively analyzed whether and to what extent the patients’ ability to maintain a certain bladder filling influenced the degree of acute GU toxicity and whether cut-off values could be differentiated.

    Results

    We demonstrated that the ability to reach a reproducible bladder volume above a threshold volume of 180 cc and maintain that volume via biofeedback throughout treatment predicts for a decrease in acute GU toxicity during curative high-dose IMRT of the prostate. Patients who were not able to reach a partial bladder filling to that cut-off value and were not able to maintain a partially filled bladder throughout treatment had a significantly higher risk of developing ≥grade 2 GU acute toxicity.

    Conclusion

    Our results support the hypothesis that a biofeedback training for the patient is an easy-to-apply, useful, and cost-effective tool for reducing acute GU toxicity in high-dose IMRT of the prostate. Patients who are not able to reach and maintain a certain bladder volume during planning and treatment—two independent risk factors—might need special consideration.



  • Favorable radiation field decrease in gastric marginal zone lymphoma

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Long-term impact of stage-adapted field reduction in a large cohort of gastric marginal zone lymphoma (gMZL) patients treated conservatively with curative radiation therapy (RT).

    Patients and methods

    Prospective analysis of paper records of 290 patients with stage IE–IIE gMZL, treated in 78 radiotherapeutic institutions in Germany from 1992–2013. Stage-adapted radiation fields decreased from extended field (EF) to involved field (IF) over the course of three consecutive prospective trials of the German Study Group on Gastrointestinal Lymphoma (DSGL). Treatment results were compared between the three cohorts.

    Results

    Overall collective with median age of 60 years, slight male predominance (m:f = 1.1:1) and ratio of disease stage I:stage II = 2.1:1. Median follow-up 6.4 years in total: 13.0 years in the first gastrointestinal study (GIT 1992), 8.2 years in the second (GIT 1996) and 4.7 years in the third study (DSGL 01/2003). Stage-adapted radiation field decrease together with further technological development led to reduced relative frequencies of acute/chronic adverse effects and until now was accompanied by lower disease recurrence. The third study design with smallest field size (IF in stage I, locoregional EF in stage II) achieved the best survival outcome at the 5‑year follow-up (overall survival 92.7%, event-free survival 89.5% and lymphoma-specific survival 100.0%). Disease relapse observed in 10 patients. Cumulative incidence of disease-specific death was 1.7% of the followed patients. Primary disease stage associated with lymphoma-specific survival.

    Conclusion

    Stage-adapted reduction towards IF in gMZL resulted in favorable adverse effects, local control and survival rates. These results support further decreases in modern RT of gMZL.



  • Retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma: low-dose neoadjuvant radiation therapy followed by surgery with or without intraoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant radiation therapy

    Abstract

    Background

    We describe the clinical history, outcome, and toxicity of five patients with high-grade retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma (RSTS) who were treated with neoadjuvant low-dose radiotherapy (RT) followed by resection with or without intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), followed by adjuvant RT. We aim to provide additional evidence for the various treatment options that exist for this rare tumor entity.

    Methods

    Most patients presented with mild abdominal symptoms. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy. Additional imaging was done by sonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and/or positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). All patients were treated with neoadjuvant RT of 19.8 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions followed by resection and postoperative RT up to 45 Gy with a median interval between resection and start of postoperative RT of 5 weeks. Two patients received additional IORT. Median follow-up was 61 months.

    Results

    One patient developed a local recurrence that was diagnosed 30 months after the start of the first therapy. He was treated with a salvage resection and had no evidence of disease at the last follow-up. Another patient developed a right-sided RSTS on the contralateral side from the primary radiation field with pelvic bone infiltration 56 months after the start of RT. He was treated again by RT and resection and was without evidence of disease at last follow-up. Radiotherapy was well tolerated without major toxicity.

    Conclusion

    The treatment of RSTS by low-dose neoadjuvant RT, resection with IORT and adjuvant RT seems to be a feasible and effective treatment approach. Further studies comparing neoadjuvant with adjuvant RT are necessary to find the best treatment option.



  • Universelle genetische Testungen gegen die Unterdiagnose von erblichem Brustkrebs
  • FOLFIRINOX nach Resektion von Pankreaskarzinomen setzt neue Maßstäbe – Systemtherapie als Impulsgeber für eine Lokaltherapie beim resektablen Pankreaskarzinom
  • Definitive radiochemotherapy or initial surgery for oropharyngeal cancer

    Abstract

    Background

    The decision between definitive radio(chemo)therapy (RCT) or a surgical strategy, i. e. surgery ± adjuvant radio(chemo)therapy for optimal treatment of oropharyngeal cancer is highly debated. Human papillomavirus(HPV)-related tumours are a distinct entity associated with p16 overexpression. While this represents a major prognostic factor, its predictive significance remains unknown.

    Results

    Among 183 consecutive unselected patients treated between 2009 and 2013 with a state-of-the-art surgical procedure ± adjuvant radio(chemo)therapy or definitive RCT including intensity-modulated radiotherapy, 3‑year disease-free survival (DFS) was 74 vs. 57%, respectively (p = 0.007). When focusing on p16+ patients (49%), there was no significant difference in tumour control rate between surgery ± radio(chemo)therapy and the definitive RCT group (3-year DFS 83 vs. 82%, respectively; p = 0.48). However, delayed severe dysphagia was significantly lower in favour of definitive RCT: 35 vs. 4%, respectively; p = 0.0002.

    Conclusion

    Our results highlight distinct outcomes after definitive RCT or initial surgical treatment according to p16 status, which should thus be considered during the decision process.



  • Lateral pelvine Lymphknoten beim lokal fortgeschrittenen Rektumkarzinom – eine unterschätzte Rezidivlokalisation?
  • Clinical safety and efficacy of salvage reirradiation for upper abdominal malignancies

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Reirradiation has the potential to provide effective local control of upper abdominal malignancies. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reirradiation for upper abdominal malignancies.

    Methods

    A total of 42 patients with a history of prior radiotherapy (RT) received reirradiation for abdominal malignancies between 2005 and 2017. Each patient’s medical records, contours, and dose distribution for both RT courses were reviewed. The median dose of the prior RT was 50.0 Gy (range, 30.0–60.0 Gy) and the median dose of reirradiation was 45.0 Gy (range, 15.0–75.0 Gy).

    Results

    With a median follow-up of 10.9 months, the median infield-failure-free survival (IFFS) rate was 9.2 months. Gross tumor volume (GTV) significantly related to IFFS in both the univariate (p = 0.009) and multivariate analyses (p = 0.024), and patients with a GTV of <60.0 mL had an improved IFFS (p = 0.001). Four patients experienced ≥grade 3 late toxicities. In the retrospective dose reconstruction analysis in these patients, the cumulative dose to the most exposed 2 cc (D2cc) of the duodenum was >60.0 Gy (range, 60.1–73.7 Gy). In the univariate analysis, the D2cc of the duodenum and a preexisting duodenal ulcer identified using endoscopy prior to reirradiation significantly correlated with late severe toxicity (p = 0.021 and 0.017, respectively).

    Conclusions

    Reirradiation for upper abdominal malignancies could be safely performed for patients without preexisting gastrointestinal morbidity unless the duodenum received excessive radiation doses. Reirradiation could also provide substantial IFFS, especially for patients with a GTV of <60.0 mL.



  • Is there a patient population with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region who might benefit from de-intensification of postoperative radiotherapy?

    Abstract

    Purpose

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of a previously defined low-risk patient population with completely resected (R0) squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx (pT1–3, pN0–pN2b), hypopharynx (pT1–2, pN0–pN1), and the indication for postoperative radio(chemo)therapy.

    Patients and methods

    According to predefined criteria, 99 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) who were treated at our institution from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2014, were available for analysis. The Kaplan–Meier method was used for calculating survival and incidence rates. For univariate comparative analysis, the log-rank test was used for analyzing prognostic clinicopathologic parameters.

    Results

    Median follow-up was 67 months. Cumulative overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 97.9%/94.7%/88.0% and 96.9%/92.6%/84.7% after 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively. Cumulative incidence of loco-regional recurrence (LRR), distant metastases (DM), and second cancer (SC) were 1.0%/1.0%/4.9%, 0.0%/3.4%/5.8%, and 2.1%/4.2%/13.1%, respectively. In univariate comparative analysis, location of the primary tumor in the oropharynx was a significant predictor for increased OS (p = 0.043) and DFS (p = 0.048).

    Conclusion

    Considering the low disease relapse rates and high rates of therapy-induced late side effects, as well as the increased risk of developing SC, a prospective multicentric trial investigating de-escalation of radiotherapy in this clearly defined low-risk patient population was started and is still recruiting patients (DIREKHT-Trial, NCT02528955).



  • Incidence of second primary cancers after radiotherapy combined with platinum and/or cetuximab in head and neck cancer patients

    Abstract

    Purpose

    The second primary cancer (SPC) incidence after treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy and cetuximab in combination with radiotherapy has not been previously reported. Our aim was to compare SPC risk following radiotherapy in combination with these agents for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

    Methods

    The charts of 296 cases treated for loco-regionally advanced HNSCC between 2009 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed for patient, tumor, and procedural characteristics. All patients were planned to undergo radiotherapy either with platinum compounds (group: Platinum) or monoclonal antibody cetuximab (group: Cetuximab). A third group of patients switched from platinum compounds to cetuximab due to toxicity (group: Switch). Treatment groups were evaluated for the incidence of SPC with log-rank test. Possible confounders were investigated with multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards model. All tests were two-sided, and a p < 0.05 was set to indicate statistical significance.

    Results

    Median follow-up was 36 months. Platinum, Cetuximab, and Switch groups consisted of 158, 101, and 37 patients, respectively. Three-year overall survival in the whole cohort was 70%. The rate of SPC was comparable between Platinum (9.2%) and Cetuximab (11.5%) groups (p = 0.98), whereas the patients in the Switch group were exposed to a significantly higher incidence of SPC (23.3%) in 3 years (p = 0.01). The multivariate model indicated Switch to be the only variable correlating with an increased risk for SPC.

    Conclusions

    The Switch strategy may expose the patients to an increased risk of developing SPC. The use of switch should be advocated with caution until robust pre-clinical and clinical data are available.



  • Radiotherapy-induced dysphagia and its impact on quality of life in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Abstract

    Purpose

    To investigate the swallowing status and its impact on quality of life (QOL) in patients who underwent radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

    Methods

    In this study, 334 patients with NPC who underwent radiotherapy were reviewed. Clinical characteristics, videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSSs), and scores of the World Health Organization quality of life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) were retrospectively analyzed for all patients.

    Results

    In this study, 143 of 334 (42.8%) patients showed dysphagia. The nodular stage N3 of NPC, neoadjuvant and concurrent chemotherapy were clinical predictors for dysphagia. VFSS of patients with dysphagia showed a high incidence of vallecular residue (100%), apraxia (99%), premature bolus loss (98%), bolus formation (98%), pyriform sinus residue (95%), and mastication (94%). Moreover, WHOQOL-BREF scores for the physical health, psychological, and environment domains were lower of the dysphagia group than those of the control group (P < 0.01). Videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale scores showed significant negative correlations with scores for the physical health (R = −0.66, P < 0.01), psychological (R = −0.70, P < 0.01), social relationships (R = −0.56, P < 0.01), and environment (R = −0.61, P < 0.01) domains of WHOQOL-BREF.

    Conclusions

    Radiotherapy-induced dysphagia is common in NPC patients and is correlated with poor quality of life. Patients, caregivers, and clinical physicians should be aware of these adverse effects and provide timely treatment for radiotherapy-induced dysphagia in collaboration with cross-disciplinary colleagues.



  • Heparin treatment mitigates radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice by interplaying with repopulation processes

    Abstract

    Purpose

    To investigate the mechanistic background of the muco-protective effect of systemic heparin treatment on the development of radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice.

    Materials and methods

    Fractionated irradiation was given to the snouts of male C3H/Neu mice over 2 weeks (10 × 3 Gy), either alone or in combination with daily subcutaneous application of unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin (40 or 200 I.U./mouse, respectively). Over this course of 14 days, groups of mice (n = 3) were sacrificed every second day, their tongues excised and processed for histological analysis. The epithelial radiation response with and without heparin treatment was evaluated in terms of tissue morphology, proliferation and expression of cell contact molecules.

    Results

    Systemic treatment with heparins significantly reduced the cellular effects of irradiation to the oral epithelium. Heparin treated animals showed significantly higher total epithelial cell numbers and thickness throughout the study course. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation analyses revealed that markedly more epithelial cells retained their proliferative capacity in the beginning of the first treatment week, but the proliferation of the mucosa was not stimulated during the rest of the study course. The expression of the adherens junction protein β‑catenin was slightly elevated in heparin treated animals, on day 2 the increase was statistically significant. The expression of e‑cadherin and occludin was mostly unaffected by the concomitant heparin treatment.

    Conclusion

    The findings of this study indicate an interplay of additional heparin treatment with the repopulation processes, leading to an earlier onset of this adaptive radiation response in oral mucosa. Importantly, we could demonstrate that the protective potential of heparin did not rely on stimulation of normal tissue proliferation. Since both heparin preparations are already approved for clinical use, they are considered as promising candidates for future clinical studies.



  • CT-based dose recalculations in head and neck cancer radiotherapy: comparison of daily dose recalculations to less time-consuming approaches

    Abstract

    Background

    The goal of this study was to investigate if daily dose recalculations are necessary or if less time-consuming approaches can be used to identify dose differences to the planned dose in patients with head and neck cancers (H&N).

    Methods

    For 12 H&N patients treated with helical tomotherapy, daily dose calculations were performed retrospectively. Four different summation doses (SuDo) were calculated: DayDo (daily dose calculation), MVCTx2, MVCTx5, and MVCTx10 (dose calculations every second, fifth, and tenth fraction). Dose recalculations were depicted on the last contoured mega voltage CT (MVCT). The DayDo was compared to the planned dose and to the less time-consuming SuDo scenarios. The doses were assessed for the planning target volume (PTV) and the organs at risk (OARs): mandible (mand), spinal cord (SC), spinal cord +5 mm (SC+5 mm), parotid glands (PG).

    Results

    The ipsilateral PG, contralateral PG, and PTV volume decreased by −22.5% (range: −34.8 to 5.2%), −19.5% (−31.5 to 15.8%), and −2.6% (−16.7 to 0.2%), respectively. There was a significant median mean dose (Dmean) dose difference for DayDo compared to the planned dose for PG total of 1.9 Gy (−3.3 to 7.3 Gy). But less time-consuming SuDo compared to DayDo showed statistically significant but not clinically relevant (<2%) dose differences for several organs. Hence the small dose difference to the gold standard (DayDo), we recommend dose recalculations every fifth MVCT in order to identify the occurrence of dose differences compared to the planned dose.

    Conclusion

    Daily dose calculations are the most precise to assess dose differences between actual and planned dose. Dose recalculations on every fifth MVCT (i. e., weekly control CTs) are an applicable and time-saving way of identifying patients with significant dose differences compared to the planned dose.



  • Treatment outcomes of prostate cancer patients with Gleason score 8–10 treated with definitive radiotherapy

    Abstract

    Purpose

    To validate the clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in prostate cancer (PCa) patients with Gleason score (GS) 8–10 disease treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) + androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in the modern era.

    Methods

    Institutional databases of biopsy proven 641 patients with GS 8–10 PCa treated between 2000 and 2015 were collected from 11 institutions. In this multi-institutional Turkish Radiation Oncology Group study, a standard database sheet was sent to each institution for patient enrollment. The inclusion criteria were, T1–T3N0M0 disease according to AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) 2010 Staging System, no prior diagnosis of malignancy, at least 70 Gy total irradiation dose to prostate ± seminal vesicles delivered with either three-dimensional conformal RT or intensity-modulated RT and patients receiving ADT.

    Results

    The median follow-up time was 5.9 years (range 0.4–18.2 years); 5‑year overall survival (OS), biochemical relapse-free survival (BRFS) and distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) rates were 88%, 78%, and 79%, respectively. Higher RT doses (≥78 Gy) and longer ADT duration (≥2 years) were significant predictors for improved DMFS, whereas advanced stage was a negative prognosticator for DMFS in patients with GS 9–10.

    Conclusions

    Our results validated the fact that oncologic outcomes after radical EBRT significantly differ in men with GS 8 versus those with GS 9–10 prostate cancer. We found that EBRT dose was important predictive factor regardless of ADT period. Patients receiving ‘non-optimal treatment’ (RT doses <78 Gy and ADT period <2 years) had the worst treatment outcomes.



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